1). Aircraft components are exposed to complicated loadings during the flights. Major parts of an Airplane. endstream endobj startxref [Figure 3-4] The overall characteristics are largely determined by the original design objectives. Cette société est une société à responsabilité limitée (SARL) fondée en 2002 ayant comme SIRET The fuselage is the central body of an airplane and is designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, and cargo. Wings may be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of the fuselage. The study covers a description of legislative instruments that influence preferential runway selection in relation to the maximum tailwind component applied; tailwind certification issues; and relevant safety issues concerning tailwind operations in general. The elevator, which is attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer, is used to move the nose of the airplane up and down during flight. Skin stringers and spar caps 39% Access doors, splicers and attachments 8% Spar webs 7% Ribs 5% Bulkheads 8% LE and TE 11% Secondary structures 4% Control surfaces 18% . stringers, longerons, ribs, bulkheads, etc.). There are numerous wing designs, sizes, and shapes used by the various manufacturers. Category:Aircraft components. A high-pressure area is formed at the back of the propeller’s airfoil, and low pressure is produced at the face of the propeller, similar to the way lift is generated by an airfoil used as a lifting surface or wing. Figure 4-5 shows these units of a naval aircraft. The empennage includes the entire tail group and consists of fixed surfaces, such as the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal stabilizer. 0 New components are used in new aircraft, which gradually replace old aircraft as they are retired, and may also replace old components in existing aircraft. h��YmO�6�+��} �ǎtBZ`y�J{�V�VU� 5�AIh��}�q�݄}9��D�"4ر��=���i&Xd�q,�,6,����pL�X��3�5�c&���LE���)�#1���J3Q���2�"�P��D�s3@��1����G��K&����'y���K&�B�o�>�|��>���:=. If it is not available, then possible ways to meet the demand within the given time should be worked out. A video series covering the basic aircraft components. When the third wheel is located on the nose, it is called a nosewheel, and the design is referred to as a tricycle gear. CAR 145 Rev.0 was introduced on 26th January 2005 in order to harmonize requirements for approval of aircraft maintenance organizations with that of international requirements, which was primarily based on EASA Part-145 regulation. aircraft or component, which may involve customs, taxes, financial aspects, export of antiquities, etc. Saving the down-time for an aircraft means that it can be used in a higher utilization mode. The components that make up a piston engine are subjected to high loads, high temperatures, and high speeds. Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant. The pads place pressure on the rotor which is turning with the wheels. A second type of empennage design does not require an elevator. This page shows the parts of an airplane and their functions. The distributions of these two fundamental shapes define each of the aircraft components. How does a PILOT KNOW when to DESCEND? [Figure 3-13] The engine is covered by a cowling, or a nacelle, which are both types of covered housing. 62 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<12E12B6C7C7D5348BF59FF23D91B645E>]/Index[52 29]/Info 51 0 R/Length 66/Prev 132092/Root 53 0 R/Size 81/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Our extensive in-house resources ensure the shortest turnaround time and highest material availability. The subcomponents of an airplane include the airframe, electrical system, flight controls, and brakes. There are two significant factors involved in the design of a propeller that impact its effectiveness. Export of an aircraft First, it is important to note that “export” of an aircraft in this context relates to when an aircraft is removed from the New Zealand Register of Aircraft, known as “de-registration”, and not when the aircraft physically leaves the country. Trim tabs are small, movable portions of the trailing edge of the control surface. %PDF-1.6 %���� Figure 3-7. The pitch is defined as the distance a propeller would travel in one revolution if it were turning in a solid. The powerplant usually includes both the engine and the propeller. Instead, it incorporates a one-piece horizontal stabilizer that pivots from a central hinge point. 80 0 obj <>stream The primary function of an aircraft electrical system is to generate, regulate, and distribute electrical power throughout the aircraft. Engines may be turned around to be pushers with the propeller at the rear. Aircraft Components & Structure. The flight controls are the devices and systems that govern the attitude of an aircraft and, as a result, the flight path followed by the aircraft. [Figure 3-12]. The principal structural parts of the wing are spars, ribs, and stringers. The purpose of the cowling or nacelle is to streamline the flow of air around the engine and to help cool the engine by ducting air around the cylinders. [Figure 3-9] Handbooks specific to most categories of aircraft are available for the interested pilot and can be found on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) website at www.faa.gov. These designs are referred to as high-, mid-, and low-wing, respectively. Descent planning explained by CAPTAIN JOE - Duration: 12:26. %%EOF Additionally, some aircraft are steered by differential braking. One of the most signi"cant components of aircraft design is CG. With hundreds of commercial aircraft under our support, we understand the impact and costs of an AOG (aircraft-on-ground). [Figure 3-8]. 94% efficiency. The location, size and type of the components may vary from a Cessna 172 to Boeing 727, however the primary functionality of the components remains same. These issues are developed in some detail in subsequent chapters on steady turning flight. Flaps extend outward from the fuselage to near the midpoint of each wing. Landing gear with a rear mounted wheel is called conventional landing gear. For example, the wing of the weight-shift control aircraft is highly swept in an effort to reduce drag and allow for the shifting of weight to provide controlled flight. If a component is removed and replaced from an aircraft that is due an inspection in accordance with the aircraft maintenance program and the inspection criteria is documented in the aircraft maintenance manual (AMM); Is it acceptable to utilize the aircraft AMM inspection procedure to return the component to serviceability on an Component Release Certificate such as EASA Form One … The subcomponents of an airplane include the airframe, electrical system, flight controls, and brakes. A steerable nosewheel or tailwheel permits the airplane to be controlled throughout all operations while on the ground. The aircraft’s electrical power system is used to operate the flight instruments, essential systems, such as anti-icing, and passenger services, such as cabin lighting. These surfaces are operated by the pilot in the flight deck or by an automatic pilot. The movable surfaces include the rudder, the elevator, and one or more trim tabs. This is called ‘Friction’. parts and components. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Our product range for aircraft materials ranges from repairs, sales and loan of single components and the provision of consumables & expendables, to integrated material supply with pooling and even complete supply at the airplane. FUSELAGE The fuselage is the main structure, or body, of the aircraft. Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes, most of them have the same major components. endstream endobj 53 0 obj <> endobj 54 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 55 0 obj <>stream Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes, most of them have the same major components. The particular features of the defining shapes are indeed quite dependent on the application as well as the flow environment especially the cruise Mach number (fig. Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo from one place to another. In the present study the safety aspects of aircraft takeoff and landing operations in tailwinds are explored. The antiservo tab moves in the same direction as the trailing edge of the stabilator and helps make the stabilator less sensitive. maintenance of aircraft and aircraft components shall be approved. [Figure 3-11]. The airframe is the basic structure of an aircraft and is designed to withstand all aerodynamic forces, as well as the stresses imposed by the weight of the fuel, crew, and payload. A single member of the structure may be subjected to a combination of stresses. [click image to enlarge]Attached to the rear, or trailing edges, of the wings are two types of control surfaces referred to as ailerons and flaps. Airplanes with conventional landing gear are sometimes referred to as tailwheel airplanes. ! Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on the mission of the aircraft. 52 0 obj <> endobj Airplane Ownership – General Aviation Information, Rod Machado's How to Fly an Airplane Handbook. The flaps are normally flush with the wing’s surface during cruising flight. Before the aircraft is airborne, it will need to perform several ground tasks, which include the ability for a smooth ground movement. Aircraft structural members are designed to carry a load or to resist stress. Alternate types of wings are often found on aircraft. Introduction: The airframe is the basic structure of an aircraft, design to withstand aerodynamic forces and stresses imposed. Wheeled landing gear consists of three wheels—two main wheels and a third wheel positioned either at the front or rear of the airplane. Aircraft are retired at rates that depend on the age of the aircraft, based on data from Forsberg (Forsberg, 2012). Each part of the aircraft responds dynamically to the forces acting during the flight phases such as taxi-bump or landing. This increases the aerodynamic tail load and causes the nose of the airplane to move up. However, dynamic loadings are more prominent since the conditions are changeable while flying. The angle of a propeller blade, as measured against the hub of the propeller, keeps the angle of attack (AOA) (See definition in Glossary) relatively constant along the span of the propeller blade, reducing or eliminating the possibility of a stall. Our turnaround times are amongst the best available in the MRO industry. FUEL EJECTOR PUMP P/N 03-1001-05-1 This fuel ejector pump has an integral check valve to prevent fuel from draining back into the tank when the system is shut down. In this article, we’ll be sharing a series of eight short videos. Airplanes with a single set of wings are referred to as monoplanes, while those with two sets are called biplanes. There are several different power sources on aircraft to power the aircraft electrical systems. As a result of the increased friction on the rotor, the wheels inherently slow down and stop turning. Powerplant. The amount of lift being produced by the propeller is directly related to the AOA, which is the angle at which the relative wind meets the blade. AIRCRAFT LIFE MONITORING There are 3 philosophical approaches to designing aircraft in order to ensure that they operate safely throughout their operational lives. At the core of the hole measurement process tool are high precision optical encoders for measurement of diameter and countersink depth. This category has the following 19 subcategories, out of 19 total. Because airplane brakes are used principally during landings and must absorb enormous amounts of energy, their life is measured in landings rather than miles. Forecasted work scope and grounding schedule of Aircrafts / Engines/ Components has to be planned for the availability of parts required to carry out the required work scope. In some very highly integrated configurations such as hypersonic wave riders, the individual components may not be readily … The component parts are generally made of metals, and as the moving parts of the engine slide against each other, there is a resistance to their movement. the major contributors for aircraft components. [Figure 3-5] The most popular types of fuselage structures used in today’s aircraft are the monocoque (French for “single shell”) and semimonocoque. The airframe is the basic structure of an aircraft and is designed to withstand all aerodynamic forces, as well as the stresses imposed by the weight of the fuel, crew, and payload. These power sources include: engine-driven alternating current (AC) generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and external power. This chapter is the body of this report and is an example of the kind of material which would be part of a Phase II handbook. Ailerons extend from about the midpoint of each wing outward toward the tip, and move in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the airplane to roll. [Figure 3-7] These are reinforced by trusses, I-beams, tubing, or other devices, including the skin. Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant. Direct contact measurement has been proven reliable and accurate for over 20 years in production applications. Stabilators have an antiservo tab extending across their trailing edge. NOTE: The terms left or right used in relation to any of the structural units refer to the right or left hand of the pilot seated in the cockpit. Laser Cladding Repair for Aircraft Components Clad layer Laser Cladding or Laser Metal Deposition – How it Works Coaxial laser cladding Side laser cladding Ref: M. Brandt, Laser Additive Manufacture and Aerospace Industry, ICAMP8, Gold Coast, QLD, 2014 . There are many other parts as well. This pressure differential develops thrust from the propeller, which in turn pulls the airplane forward. During flight, it is used to move the airplane’s nose left and right. It also provides the structural connection for the wings and tail assembly. The disks and brake pads are made either from steel, like those in a car, or from a carbon material that weighs less and can absorb more energy. A few high-wing and most low-wing airplanes have a full cantilever wing designed to carry the loads without external struts. In the case of most modern airplanes, airplane brakes consist of multiple pads (called caliper pads) that are hydraulically squeezed toward each other with a rotating disk (called a rotor) between them. It also generates electrical power, provides a vacuum source for some flight instruments, and in most single-engine airplanes, provides a source of heat for the pilot and passengers. [Figure 3-10]. These two factors combine to allow a measurement of the propeller’s efficiency. Since the wing struts are usually attached approximately halfway out on the wing, this type of wing structure is called semi-cantilever. Flight Instruments. aircraft assembly. The primary function of the engine is to provide the power to turn the propeller. DR ERDOGAN KAYGAN 16/04/2019 Aircraft Components Fuselage Structure Fuselage Design Concept The rudder is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer. h�bbd``b`� The propeller, mounted on the front of the engine, translates the rotating force of the engine into thrust, a forward acting force that helps move the airplane through the air. In the case of many conventional airplanes, the primary flight controls utilize hinged, trailingedge surfaces called elevators for pitch, ailerons for roll, and the rudder for yaw. Aircraft Components and Subsystems 5 arises most importantly in the allowed wing loading, which, as will be shown later, limits the tightness of a turn that an aircraft can safely achieve. It is the speci"c point where the mass or weight of an aircraft may be said to center; that is, a point around which, if the aircraft could be suspended or balanced, the aircraft would remain relatively level. [Figure 3-6]. The most common type of landing gear consists of wheels, but airplanes can also be equipped with floats for water operations or skis for landing on snow. Failure statistics for electrical and electronic components on aircraft are covered in Chapter H. Chapter III summarizes failure analysis techniques for accident investigation of seven types of electrical components. Wing components. The antiservo tab also functions as a trim tab to relieve control pressures and helps maintain the stabilator in the desired position. When extended, the flaps move simultaneously downward to increase the lifting force of the wing for takeoffs and landings. Many high-wing airplanes have external braces, or wing struts that transmit the flight and landing loads through the struts to the main fuselage structure. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aircraft components: Subcategories. The position of the CG of an aircraft determines the stability of the aircraft in !ight. Although aircrafts have evolved a lot since the WWI, the major components of an aircraft have remained same. Whether you are looking for aircraft components or repairs, our AOG desk can provide you with the best quality and technical standards. Captain Joe Recommended for you The wings are airfoils attached to each side of the fuselage and are the main lifting surfaces that support the airplane in flight. Turnaround time and highest material availability does not require an elevator the desired position low-wing. 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